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Teaching physician - Billing requirements for surgeries and applicable modifiers


The teaching surgeon is responsible for the preoperative, operative, and postoperative care of the beneficiary. The teaching physician’s presence is not required during the opening and closing of the surgical field unless these activities are considered to be critical or key portions of the procedure. The teaching surgeon determines which postoperative visits are considered key or critical and require his or her presence.During non-critical or non-key portions of the surgery, if the teaching surgeon is not physically present, he/she must be immediately available to return to the procedure, i.e., he/she cannot be performing another procedure. If circumstances prevent a teaching physician from being immediately available, then he/she must arrange for another qualified surgeon to be immediately available to assist with the procedure, if needed.


1. Single Surgery

When the teaching surgeon is present for the entire surgery, his or her presence may be demonstrated by notes in the medical records made by the physician, resident, or operating room nurse. For purposes of this teaching physician policy, there is no required information that the teaching surgeon must enter into the medical records.

2. Two Overlapping Surgeries

In order to bill Medicare for two overlapping surgeries, the teaching surgeon must be present during the critical or key portions of both operations. Therefore, the critical or key portions may not take place at the same time. When all of the key portions of the initial procedure have been completed, the teaching surgeon may begin to become involved in a second procedure. The teaching surgeon must personally document in the medical record that he/she was physically present during the critical or key portion(s) of both procedures. When a teaching physician is not present during non-critical or non-key portions of the procedure and is participating in another surgical procedure, he/she must arrange for another qualified surgeon to immediately assist the resident in the other case should the need arise. In the case of three concurrent surgical procedures, the role of the teaching surgeon (but not anesthesiologist) in each of the cases is classified as a supervisory service to the hospital rather than a physician service to an individual patient and is not payable under the physician fee schedule.

3. Minor Procedures

For procedures that take only a few minutes (five minutes or less) to complete, e.g., simple suture, and involve relatively little decision making once the need for the operation is determined, the teaching surgeon must be present for the entire procedure in order to bill for the procedure.

4. Anesthesia

Medicare pays at the regular fee schedule level if a teaching anesthesiologist is involved in a single procedure with one resident. The teaching physician must document in the medical records that he/she was present during all critical (or key) portions of the procedure. The teaching physician’s physical presence during only the preoperative or postoperative visits with the beneficiary is not sufficient to receive Medicare payment. If an anesthesiologist is involved in concurrent procedures with more than one resident or with a resident and a nonphysician anesthetist and the service is furnished prior to January 1, 2010, Medicare pays for the anesthesiologist’s services as medical direction. In those cases where the teaching anesthesiologist is involved in two concurrent anesthesia cases with residents on or after January 1, 2004, the teaching anesthesiologist may bill the usual base units and anesthesia time for the amount of time he/she is present with the resident. The teaching anesthesiologist can bill base units if he/she is present with the resident throughout pre and post anesthesia care. The teaching anesthesiologist should use the “AA” modifier to report such cases. The teaching anesthesiologist must document his/her involvement in cases with residents. The documentation must be sufficient to support the payment of the fee and available for review upon request.

For anesthesia services furnished on or after January 1, 2010, payment may be made under the Medicare physician fee schedule at the regular fee schedule level if the teaching anesthesiologist is involved in the training of a resident in a single anesthesia case, two concurrent anesthesia cases involving residents, or a single anesthesia case involving a resident that is concurrent to another case paid under the medical direction rules. To qualify for payment, the teaching anesthesiologist, or different anesthesiologists in the same anesthesia group, must be present during all critical or key portions of the anesthesia service or procedure involved. The teaching anesthesiologist (or another anesthesiologist with whom the teaching physician has entered into an arrangement) must be immediately available to furnish anesthesia services during the entire procedure. The documentation in the patient’s medical records must indicate the teaching physician’s presence during all critical or key portions of the anesthesia procedure and the immediate availability of another teaching anesthesiologist as necessary.

If different teaching anesthesiologists are present with the resident during the key or critical periods of the resident case, the NPI of the teaching anesthesiologist who started the case must be indicated in the appropriate field on the claim form. The teaching anesthesiologist should use the “AA” modifier (Anesthesia services personally performed by anesthesiologist) and the “GC” certification modifier (This service has been performed in part by a resident under the direction of a teaching physician) to report such cases.

5. Endoscopy Procedures

To bill Medicare for endoscopic procedures the teaching physician must be present during the entire viewing. The entire viewing starts at the time of insertion of the endoscope and ends at the time of removal of the endoscope. Viewing of the entire procedure through a monitor in another room does not meet the teaching physician presence requirement.

6. Interpretation of Diagnostic Radiology and Other Diagnostic Tests

Medicare pays for the interpretation of diagnostic radiology and other diagnostic tests if the interpretation is performed by or reviewed with a teaching physician. If the teaching physician’s signature is the only signature on the interpretation, Medicare assumes that he/she is indicating that he/she personally performed the interpretation. If a resident prepares and signs the interpretation, the teaching physician must indicate that he/she has personally reviewed the image and the resident’s interpretation and either agrees with it or edits the findings. Medicare does not pay for an interpretation if the teaching physician only countersigns the resident’s interpretation.

Billing Modifiers

Teaching Physician Services that Meet the Requirement for Presence During the Key/Critical Portion of the Service

Modifier GC - This service has been performed in part by a resident under the direction of a teaching physician.

Claims for teaching physician services in compliance with the requirements must include a GC modifier for each service, unless the service is furnished under the primary care center exception. When a physician (or other appropriate billing provider) places the GC modifier on the claim, he/she is certifying that the teaching physician was present during the key/critical portion of the service, and was immediately available during the other parts of the service.

Teaching Physician Services Under the Exception for E/M Services Furnished in Primary Care Centers

Modifier GE - This service has been performed by a resident without the presence of a teaching physician under the primary care exception.

Claims for services furnished by teaching physicians under the primary care center exception must include the GE modifier on the claim for each service furnished under the primary care center exception.


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