CPT Code 86652 | Description & Clinical Information

CPT 86652 describes the process in which a lab analyst conducts an immunoassay to assess the presence of antibodies to the Eastern equine encephalitis virus, also known as EEEV, in a patient’s serum or cerebrospinal fluid.

Official Description

The CPT book defines CPT code 86652 as: “Antibody; encephalitis, Eastern equine”.

Clinical Information

The procedure described by CPT code 86652 involves testing a patient’s serum or cerebrospinal fluid for antibodies to EEEV, an arbovirus or insect-borne virus. This intricate process is performed by a lab analyst who uses various immunoassay procedures like indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

The testing process includes multiple steps such as reacting the specimen with test antigens, incubating the mixture, adding an agent to detect the antigen/antibody complex like a stain or fluorescent or other marker, and interpreting the results. The outcome is determined as positive, negative, or even as a semiquantitative value.

While this procedure isn’t specific to any one condition, clinicians may order it to aid in the diagnosis of EEEV encephalitis. This mosquito-borne disease can cause symptoms like headache, fever, vomiting, disorientation, and seizures, or coma associated with encephalitis, which is essentially an inflammation of the brain. The condition has a 33 percent mortality rate, and brain damage is evident in most survivors.

Doctors usually order testing for two types of immunoglobulins, namely IgG and IgM, to diagnose EEEV exposure or neurological infections. A single unit of 86652 represents one test for a single immunoglobulin class.

The IgG and IgM antibodies help confirm the presence of the antibodies in the serum, which affirms exposure to the organism within the body. In contrast, testing within the brain confirms the presence of neurological infections with affirmative diagnosis in patients.

In conclusion, using CPT code 86652, clinicians can diagnose EEEV encephalitis by testing a patient’s serum or cerebrospinal fluid. The process is complicated and requires the expertise of a lab analyst who uses various immunoassay procedures to detect antibodies in the patient’s body. Clinicians can order the test for specific immunoglobulin classes to confirm the diagnosis and extent of exposure to EEEV.

Return to all the CPT codes for qualitative or semiquantitative immunoassays.

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