CPT Code 84153 | Description & Clinical Information
CPT 84153 describes the laboratory testing of serum or plasma samples by a lab analyst to determine the total prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, a protein produced by the prostate gland, which clinicians may use to screen for prostate cancer and monitor disease progression.
The CPT book defines CPT code 84153 as: “Prostate specific antigen (PSA); total”.
The procedure described by CPT code 84153 is a diagnostic test that measures the total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a patient’s blood sample. The process involves a lab analyst who performs all technical steps of the testing process. The analyst chooses from various methods to quantify total PSA levels in the blood.
One of the most common methods for quantitating PSA levels is the immunoenzymatic assay, which uses antigen-antibody reactions. Another method used is called electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). ECLIA utilizes antibody-antigen particles reacting by electric charge and chemical properties to produce a color change, with automated laboratory equipment. Serum or plasma are the typical specimens used for testing.
For sample collection, no special preparation is necessary for the patient. However, blood usually gets collected before conducting a digital rectal exam as manipulating the prostate gland may increase PSA levels in the blood.
The total PSA test is ordered by providers if the patient is experiencing difficult or painful urination, frequent urination, back pain, or as a routine health screening test, depending on the provider. Elevated results are common in prostatitis, which is inflammation of the prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Monitoring patients is essential to check the progression of slow-growing cancers.
The total PSA test has become relatively common in detecting prostate cancer. It serves as a reliable screening tool, but its reliability is not unequivocal. Therefore, frequent testing and proper monitoring are imperative for timely and widespread detection of prostate cancer, particularly in asymptomatic patients.
Prostate-specific antigen or PSA is a type of protein produced by the cells in the prostate gland. PSA levels vary throughout a man’s life, with PSA levels tending to increase with age. As men age, their prostate gland also enlarges, which may result in increased PSA levels in the bloodstream.
While the total PSA test cannot confirm the presence of prostate cancer, it can detect increased PSA levels that may indicate the possibility of having prostate cancer. Testing for PSA levels aids physicians in diagnosing, treating, and monitoring the progression of prostate cancer.
In conclusion, the total PSA test described by CPT code 84153 is a diagnostic test that measures the total prostate-specific antigen levels in the blood. It serves as a reliable screening tool for prostate cancer, but it is not an unequivocal confirmation of the disease’s presence. Monitoring PSA levels and combining with a digital rectal exam is the best practice to check for prostate cancer. Testing PSA levels is an essential diagnostic process for the detection, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer within patients.
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