Disorders Due To Use Of Volatile Inhalants – ICD 11 Codes

Definition of Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants: Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants are characterised by the pattern and consequences of volatile inhalant use. Volatile inhalants include a range of compounds that are in the gaseous or vapour phase at ambient temperatures and include various organic solvents, glues, gasoline (petrol), nitrites and gases such as nitrous oxide, trichloroethane, butane, toluene, fluorocarbons, ether and halothane. They have a range of pharmacological properties but are predominantly central nervous system depressants, with many also having vasoactive effects. They tend to be used by younger persons and may be used when access to alternative psychoactive substances is difficult or impossible. Volatile Inhalant Intoxication is well recognized. Volatile inhalants have dependence-producing properties and Volatile Inhalant Dependence and Volatile Inhalant Withdrawal is recognized although comparatively uncommon worldwide. Volatile Inhalant-Induced Mental Disorders are described. They may also cause neurocognitive impairment, including Dementia.

ICD 11 Code For Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants

6C4B  Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants

6C4B.0 Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants

Definition of Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants: An episode of volatile inhalant use or unintentional exposure (e.g., occupational exposure) that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour due to volatile inhalant intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of single episode of harmful use applies. This diagnosis should not be made if the harm is attributed to a known pattern of volatile inhalant use.

Exclusions:

  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)
  • Volatile inhalant dependence (6C4B.2)

6C4B.1 Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants

Definition of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants: A pattern of volatile inhalant use of that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health. The pattern of volatile inhalant use is evident over a period of at least 12 months if substance use is episodic or at least one month if use is continuous (i.e., daily or almost daily). Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (1) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (2) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to volatile inhalant intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants applies.

Exclusions:

  • Volatile inhalant dependence (6C4B.2)
  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)

6C4B.10 Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants episodic

Definition of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants episodic: A pattern of episodic or intermittent volatile inhalant use that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. The pattern of episodic volatile inhalant use is evident over a period of at least 12 months. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to volatile inhalant intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants applies.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Volatile inhalant dependence (6C4B.2)

6C4B.11 Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants continuous

Definition of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants continuous: A pattern of continuous (daily or almost daily) volatile inhalant use that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. The pattern of continuous volatile inhalant use is evident over a period of at least one month. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to volatile inhalant intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants applies.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Volatile inhalant dependence (6C4B.2)

6C4B.1Z Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants unspecified

6C4B.2 Volatile inhalant dependence

Definition of Volatile inhalant dependence: Volatile inhalant dependence is a disorder of regulation of volatile inhalant use arising from repeated or continuous use of volatile inhalants. The characteristic feature is a strong internal drive to use volatile inhalants, which is manifested by impaired ability to control use, increasing priority given to use over other activities and persistence of use despite harm or negative consequences. These experiences are often accompanied by a subjective sensation of urge or craving to use volatile inhalants. Physiological features of dependence may also be present, including tolerance to the effects of volatile inhalants, withdrawal symptoms following cessation or reduction in use of volatile inhalants, or repeated use of volatile inhalants or pharmacologically similar substances to prevent or alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The features of dependence are usually evident over a period of at least 12 months but the diagnosis may be made if volatile inhalant use is continuous (daily or almost daily) for at least 3 months.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)

6C4B.20 Volatile inhalant dependence current use

Definition of Volatile inhalant dependence current use: Current volatile inhalant dependence with volatile inhalant use within the past month.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)

6C4B.21 Volatile inhalant dependence early full remission

Definition of Volatile inhalant dependence early full remission: After a diagnosis of volatile inhalant dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-help intervention), the individual has been abstinent from volatile inhalants during a period lasting from between 1 and 12 months.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)

6C4B.22 Volatile inhalant dependence sustained partial remission

Definition of Volatile inhalant dependence sustained partial remission: After a diagnosis of Volatile inhalant dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-help intervention), there is a significant reduction in volatile inhalant consumption for more than 12 months, such that even though intermittent or continuing volatile inhalant use has occurred during this period, the definitional requirements for dependence have not been met.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)

6C4B.23 Volatile inhalant dependence sustained full remission

Definition of Volatile inhalant dependence sustained full remission: After a diagnosis of Volatile inhalant dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-intervention), the person has been abstinent from volatile inhalants for 12 months or longer.

Exclusions:

  • Episode of harmful use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of volatile inhalants (6C4B.1)

6C4B.2Z Volatile inhalant dependence unspecified

6C4B.3 Volatile inhalant intoxication

Definition of Volatile inhalant intoxication: Volatile inhalant intoxication is a clinically significant transient condition that develops during or shortly after the consumption of a volatile inhalant that is characterised by disturbances in consciousness, cognition, perception, affect, behaviour, or coordination. These disturbances are caused by the known pharmacological effects of volatile inhalants and their intensity is closely related to the amount of volatile inhalant consumed. They are time-limited and abate as the volatile inhalant is cleared from the body. Presenting features may include euphoria, impaired judgment, aggression, somnolence, stupor or coma, dizziness, tremor, lack of coordination, slurred speech, unsteady gait, lethargy and apathy, psychomotor retardation, and visual disturbances. Muscle weakness and diplopia may occur. Use of volatile inhalants may cause cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and death. Inhalants containing lead (e.g. some forms of petrol/gasoline) may cause confusion, irritability, coma and seizures.

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

Exclusions:

6C4B.4 Volatile inhalant withdrawal

Definition of Volatile inhalant withdrawal: Volatile inhalant withdrawal is a clinically significant cluster of symptoms, behaviours and/or physiological features, varying in degree of severity and duration, that occurs upon cessation or reduction of use of volatile inhalants in individuals who have developed Volatile inhalant dependence or have used volatile inhalants for a prolonged period or in large amounts. Presenting features of Volatile inhalant withdrawal may include insomnia, anxiety, irritability, dysphoric mood, shakiness, perspiration, nausea, and transient illusions.

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

6C4B.5 Volatile inhalant-induced delirium

Definition of Volatile inhalant-induced delirium: Volatile inhalant-induced delirium is characterised by an acute state of disturbed attention and awareness with specific features of delirium that develops during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal or during the use of volatile inhalants. The amount and duration of volatile inhalant use must be capable of producing delirium. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder, by use of or withdrawal from a different substance, or by another health condition that is not classified under Mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Coding Note:

  • This category should never be used in primary tabulation. The codes are provided for use as supplementary or additional codes when it is desired to identify the presence of dementia in diseases classified elsewhere.
  • When dementia is due to multiple aetiologies, code all that apply.

6C4B.6 Volatile inhalant-induced psychotic disorder

Definition of Volatile inhalant-induced psychotic disorder: Volatile inhalant-induced psychotic disorder is characterised by psychotic symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, grossly disorganized behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from volatile inhalants. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of psychotic-like disturbances of perception, cognition, or behaviour that are characteristic of Volatile inhalant intoxication or Volatile inhalant withdrawal. The amount and duration of volatile inhalant use must be capable of producing psychotic symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g. Schizophrenia, a Mood disorder with psychotic symptoms), as might be the case if the psychotic symptoms preceded the onset of the volatile inhalant use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the volatile inhalant use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with psychotic symptoms (e.g. a history of prior episodes not associated with volatile inhalant use).

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

6C4B.7 Certain specified volatile inhalants-induced mental or behavioural disorders

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

6C4B.70 Volatile inhalant-induced mood disorder

Definition of Volatile inhalant-induced mood disorder: Volatile inhalant-induced mood disorder is characterised by mood symptoms (e.g., depressed or elevated mood, decreased engagement in pleasurable activities, increased or decreased energy levels) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from volatile inhalants. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of mood disturbances that are characteristic of Volatile inhalant intoxication or Volatile inhalant withdrawal. The amount and duration of volatile inhalant use must be capable of producing mood symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., a Depressive disorder, a Bipolar disorder, Schizoaffective disorder), as might be the case if the mood symptoms preceded the onset of the volatile inhalant use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the volatile inhalant use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with mood symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with volatile inhalant use).

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

6C4B.71 Volatile inhalant-induced anxiety disorder

Definition of Volatile inhalant-induced anxiety disorder: Volatile inhalant-induced anxiety disorder is characterised by anxiety symptoms (e.g., apprehension or worry, fear, physiological symptoms of excessive autonomic arousal, avoidance behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from volatile inhalants. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of anxiety symptoms that are characteristic of Volatile inhalant intoxication or Volatile inhalant withdrawal. The amount and duration of volatile inhalant use must be capable of producing anxiety symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., an Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorder, a Depressive Disorder with prominent anxiety symptoms), as might be the case if the anxiety symptoms preceded the onset of the volatile inhalant use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the volatile inhalant use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with anxiety symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with volatile inhalant use).

Coding Note:

  • Code also the causing condition

6C4B.Y Other specified disorders due to use of volatile inhalants

6C4B.Z Disorders due to use of volatile inhalants unspecified

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