This article will outline the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and ICD 10 CM codes for Carotid Stenosis.
Atherosclerosis ICD 10 Causes
Carotid Stenosis ICD 10 can be used for atherosclerosis that is caused by the accumulation of deposits of cholesterol, fat, calcium and other substances (plaques) in the lining of the carotid artery. It is the most common cause of carotid artery stenosis. With increasing size of plaque deposits in the carotid, the opening in the carotid artery narrows and the risk of stroke increases. Plaques make the inside of the carotid artery rough, and it attracts platelets, the blood cells that help the blood clot. Plaques can burst and form blood clots. Small clots from plaques break off and enter the bloodstream, clogging the small arteries in the brain.
Atherosclerosis ICD 10 Symptoms
It’s important to look at the symptoms to identify Carotid Stenosis ICD 10. The first sign of carotid artery disease is a temporary ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. A TIA is a sudden and temporary loss of blood flow to an area of the brain. Diseases of the carotid arteries can show no symptoms at all. It can take from a few minutes to an hour. Symptoms can disappear within 24 hours and there is a full recovery. If the symptoms persist, it is a stroke.
The symptoms of TIA and stroke are the same. These include:
- Sudden weakness or awkwardness in the arms or legs or on one side of the body
- Sudden paralysis of the arms and legs on one or both sides of the body
- Loss of movement coordination
- Decreased concentration
- Numbness and loss of feeling in the face, arms or legs
- Temporary loss of vision
- Blurred vision
- Speech disorders
A TIA is a warning sign that a stroke is imminent. However, it does not always precede a stroke. Symptoms of carotid artery disease should be considered together with other diseases and problems.. Carotid artery stenosis can cause abnormal noises in the artery that can be heard with a stethoscope.
In case of symptoms of narrowing of carotid artery, a vascular specialist will evaluate the test results and risk status and recommend medical therapy such as carotid stenting or carotenoid endarterectomy. If the symptoms related to a narrowing of the carotid artery, the patient may need to have a carotid endometriosis, as stenting corrects the narrowing of the artery and reduces the risk of stroke. A vascular specialist can assess and recommend the best treatment for the patient.
Atherosclerosis ICD 10 Diagnosis
The different ways a physician can diagnose Carotid Stenosis ICD 10.
Carotid ultrasound, including Doppler ultrasound
This technique uses sound waves to create a real-time image of the artery and locate the blockage. This is a special ultrasound technique that detects areas that can restrict blood flow to the artery.
Computed tomography angiography (CTa)
This procedure uses a CT scanner to provide a detailed view of the arteries in the body, in this case the neck.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
This provides information similar to CTA but uses ionizing radiation. Contrast material is injected into a tube and the image is taken with X-rays. Also known as intraarterial digital subtraction angiography ( IADSA) is a minimally invasive test in which a catheter guides the artery into the desired area. This test is useful for patients with pacemakers or stents.
Atherosclerosis ICD 10 Treatments
Lifestyle changes are recommended by the National Stroke Association to prevent the progression of vascular disease. These include:
- Quit smoking and use tobacco products.
- Achieve and maintain a desirable weight.
- Control high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and heart disease.
- Have a regular check-up with the doctor. The doctor will review the lipid profile and if treatment is necessary to achieve a lipid target (LDL less than 100, HDL greater than 45), he can adjust the target based on additional risk factors and medical history.
- Eat foods that contain low saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium.
- Exercise for at least 30 minutes most days of the week.
- Limit the amount of alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption is defined as drinking more than three drinks a day.
Patients with carotid artery disease may take platelet medications to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications of cardiovascular disease. The most commonly used platelet drug is aspirin. In some cases, anticoagulants (warfarin and coumadin) are prescribed to thin the blood and reduce the risk of clots. Other drugs that prevent platelet adherence are clopidogrel (Plavix) and dipyridamol (Persantin), which are often prescribed in combination with aspirin to reduce the risk of stroke.
Eighty percent of all strokes are ischaemic. Tissue plasminogen activator ( T-PA) is a clot-dissolving drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strokes caused by a blood clot (ischemia stroke ). T-PA works best when administered within three hours of the onset of stroke symptoms.
If there is a severe narrowing or blockage of the carotid artery, surgery may be required to open the artery to increase blood flow to the brain and to prevent future strokes.
Endarterectomy of the carotid artery is the traditional surgical treatment for carotid artery disease. It is performed under general anesthesia, where the patient sleeps under local anesthesia or intravenous sedation. It has been shown to be beneficial for symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis or blockage of 50 percent or more and for asymptomatic patients (60 percent or carotid artery stenosis).
During the procedure an incision is made at the site of the carotid artery in the neck. The surgeon removes the plaque from the artery, and once the procedure is complete, the surgeon sews the artery shut. Blood flow to the brain is restored to normal.
Carotid angioplasty (stenting) is an FDA-approved treatment option for patients with carotid artery disease.
In a carotid angioplasty (stente procedure), a balloon catheter is inserted into the envelope of the blood vessels. The procedure is performed while the patient is awake or sedated. Under X-ray guidance, the catheter is placed in the blood vessel and directs the carotid artery to the location of constipation or narrowing. A specially developed guide wire filter is placed on the construction site. Once in place, a balloon tip is compressed for a few seconds to open the artery and widen it.
A filter, also called an embolic protection mechanism, collects debris to break up the blockage. After opening the artery, a stent, a small mesh tube, is placed that corresponds to the size of the artery. The stent stays in place and acts as a scaffold to support the artery wall and to keep the artery open. After a few weeks, the artery above the stent heals.
Patients can return to regular activity within one to two weeks after a carotid artery endarterectomy (carotid artery angioplasty or stent procedure). Research has shown that carotid artery stenting with an embolic device is safer and more effective than carotid endometrial surgery for high-risk surgical patients. Recovery from carotid endometrial surgery usually requires a one-day hospital stay.
ICD 10 CM Codes For Carotid Stenosis
ICD 10 CM 165.2: Occlusion and stenosis of carotid artery
ICD 10 CM 165.21: Occlusion and stenosis of right carotid artery
ICD 10 CM 165.22: Occlusion and stenosis of left carotid artery
ICD 10 CM 165.23: Occlusion and stenosis of bilateral carotid arteries
ICD 10 CM 165.29: Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified carotid artery