Definition Of Osteopenia
Osteopenia is a condition that requires low bone mass. It means that bones of a person are not as strong as they should be and are more likely to drench off. A person with osteopenia may have less dense bones than expected, but their condition is not serious enough to qualify as osteoporosis. You can classify them on a reporting card for healthy bones (A), bone osteoporosis (B or C) and bone osteopsorosis (D or F).
The first is the failure to reach one of the heights of bone mass, which is the maximum bone mass that a person should build up in the course of their life. This peak is reached between 20 and 30 years for men and 30 for women. The second cause of bone loss is when a person reaches this climax.
Certain diseases that prevent calcium from being absorbed by the bones, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and eating disorders, can prevent young people from reaching their maximal bone mass. Drogens and lifestyle habits like smoking or too much alcohol can also affect bone mass. At the other end of the spectrum, those with a healthy amount of bone mass can lose it. Genetic factors that make someone susceptible to osteoporosis can lead to low bone density.
This makes it difficult to know what to do about the disease. Osteopenia and osteoporosis alone do not cause pain or movement problems. The most common symptom is height loss. This tends to happen during aging women, especially after the menopause, when women lose estrogen. It happens when women reach their lowest point of bone loss and osteopsorosis.
Most people lose an inch of height average as they age off the highest adult height, but losing more than that can be the first indicator of underlying bone quality problems. Osteopenia is also a risk of fractures. Fractures (broken bones) are an important indicator of skeletal bone abnormalities. If an adult over 50 years of age falls below standing height due to fractures, bone density tests should be performed to investigate osteopenia and osteoporosis.
The best way to diagnose osteopenia is with a bone density test. This test examines the lumbar spine, hips and wrists. It uses an energy-saving X-ray to see the calcium content of a person’s bones and compares it with healthy young adults (T score) and people of the same age and gender (Z score). Some people tend to have low bone density. However, it is not possible to prevent osteopenia completely.
The most commonly used technology to diagnose or confirm osteoporosis, predict future fracture risk and monitor patients through serial assessment are the DAX measurements of hip and spine. The most common diagnoses of DXA scans are osteopenia (73390) and osteopsorosis (73300). Differences between patients with BMD and mean BMD in the young adult reference population of the same sex are divided by the standard deviation (SD) of the reference population and used to calculate the t-score and z-score.
CPT Codes For Reporting Osteoporosis
CPT 76977: Ultrasound, bone density measurement, and interpretation, peripheral site(s), any method
CPT 77078: Computed tomography, bone mineral density study, 1 or more sites; axial skeleton (e.g., hips, pelvis, spine)
CPT 77080: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone density study, 1 or more sites, axial skeleton (e.g. hips, pelvis, spine)
CPT 77081: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone density study, 1 or more sites, appendicular skeleton (peripheral) (e.g. radius, wrist, heel)
CPT 77085: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone density study, 1 or more sites, axial skeleton (e.g. hips, pelvis, spine), including vertebral fracture assessment
CPT 77086: Vertebral fracture assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Fracture Coding With ICD-10
Diagnosis of osteoporosis as a disease involves a physician checking the individual symptoms and signs of the patient and his background and conducting a detailed physical examination to confirm this. The standard screening tools for diagnosing the condition are dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA or DXA) and bone density measurement. These tests help determine whether a patient has low bone mass, which means the bone is weaker than normal and more likely to develop osteoporosis. This in turn helps the doctor to perform the necessary treatments.
Healthcare providers must prove whether the fracture is traumatic, pathological or non-traumatic. Traumatic fractures are caused by an accident, fall or other type of violence. On the other hand, disease-related fractures but not traumas are classified as pathological (non-traumatic) fractures. Further prominent information includes the documentation of the fracture and the location of the fracture.
This does not only identify where the bone broke, but also the precise location of the fracture. Encoders can contain details such as the distal end and the proximal end. M80 code is a series of reports from patients who visit a doctor’s office to check out the current pathological fracture at the time of encounter.
M80: Osteoporosis with current pathological fracture.
0: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture.
00: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, unspecified site.
01: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, shoulder.
011: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, right shoulder.
012: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, left the shoulder.
019: Age-related osteoporosis with current pathological fracture, unspecified shoulder.
Episodes Of Care
A: Initial encounter for fracture.
D: Subsequent encounter for fracture with routine healing.
G: Subsequent encounter for fracture with delayed healing
K: Subsequent encounter for fracture with nonunion.
P: Subsequent encounter for fracture with malnutrition.
A code is selected by determining the location of the fracture, not the location of osteoporosis. The laterality of the right or left is taken into account. If the patient does not currently have a pathological fracture, a code is selected from the M81 series if the patient has had a pathological fracture in the past. Let us take a look at the code and follow up on it.
M81: Osteoporosis without current pathological fracture.
0: Age-related osteoporosis without current pathological fracture.
6: Localized osteoporosis [Lequesne].
8: Other osteoporosis without current pathological fracture.